- Type I: the most common type, found in all connective tissue
- Type ll: found in joints and intervertebral discs (the cushions that serve as your spine’s shock absorbers)
- Type lll: the main component of reticular fibers, which are found in your skin and blood vessels
- Type lV: a component of your kidneys, inner ear, and eye lens
- Proline: found in egg whites, dairy, cabbage, mushrooms, and asparagus
- Glycine: found in pork skin, chicken skin, and gelatin, and a variety of other protein-rich foods
- Vitamin C: found in citrus fruits and bell peppers
- Zinc: found in beef, lamb, pork, shellfish, chickpeas, lentils, beans, milk, cheese, and various nuts and seeds
- Copper: found in organ meats, cocoa powder, cashews, sesame seeds, and lentils
In recent years, collagen supplements have become popular. Most are hydrolyzed, which means the collagen has been broken down to make it easier to absorb.
These supplements come primarily in powder form but are also available in capsules. The types of collagen found in supplements vary — some contain one or two types, while others contain up to five.
Several foods may naturally increase your collagen intake, including pork skin and bone broth.
While collagen is generally safe, you should always talk to your healthcare team before adding a supplement to your diet. Side effects may also occur: According to ConsumerLab.com, collagen supplements may cause a rash or, in rarer cases, liver problems.
Aside from that, a universal downside to collagen supplements is that they add an extra expense to your grocery bill. One popular collagen peptide brand, Vital Proteins, sells a 10-ounce container for $25. A 30-day supply of collagen supplements for skin, hair, and nails from the brand Hum is $40.
If you’re going to invest in taking them, it’s important to know the bevy of possible benefits collagen supplements can provide. Read on.
Fourteen grams of collagen peptide (supplement) contains:
- Calories: 50
- Protein: 12 grams
- Fat: 0 grams
- Carbohydrates: 0 grams
- Fiber: 0 grams
- Sugar: 0 grams
The same amount of collagen peptide also contains 29 milligrams of calcium, 44.9 milligrams of sodium, and 0.98 milligrams of potassium.
Potential Health Benefits of Collagen Supplements
Because it makes up so many critical parts of our bodies, collagen is not only beneficial but essential to maintaining good health. However, the benefits of collagen supplements are still debated. While there is reasonable evidence that they help maintain hydrated skin and relieve osteoarthritis pain, more research is needed into less well-understood benefits, such as lowering blood pressure and blood sugar levels.
Here are some commonly cited benefits of collagen supplements:
As you age, your bones become less dense and more brittle, breaking more easily and taking longer to heal. Studies have shown that daily collagen supplements can help make your bones denser, slowing the aging process that makes them brittle and helping your body to produce new bone.
Skin Elasticity and Hydration
Some people’s nails break more easily than others, and don’t grow as fast. One study in a group of women showed faster nail growth and fewer broken or chipped nails after only four weeks of daily collagen supplements.
Reduced Osteoarthritis Pain
For people with knee osteoarthritis, oral collagen supplements might act as a mild pain reliever and improve joint function. It may take about three to five months of daily treatment before you see these improvements.
Increased Muscle Mass
A combination of collagen peptide supplements and strength training could potentially help increase muscle mass and strength.
Potential Risks of Collagen Supplements
Side effects of collagen supplements are rare. If you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, you may want to hold off on taking a collagen supplement for now, since there isn’t yet enough research to come to any conclusions about their safety.
The effects of collagen supplements continue to be researched and debated. Instead of buying these supplements, you can always help your body make more collagen naturally by ensuring your diet is packed with healthy foods.
To produce collagen, your body puts the amino acids glycine and proline together with other amino acids including vitamin C, zinc, and copper. You can help your body produce more collagen by eating lots of glycine- and proline-rich foods like chicken, beef, fish, dairy, eggs, and beans. For vitamin C, zinc, and copper, you should also be sure to eat foods like citrus fruits, tomatoes, leafy greens, shellfish, nuts, and whole grains.
1. Supplements Help Replace What’s Naturally Lost Through Aging
Collagen is the “glue” that holds your body together, says Angelone. It makes up about one-third of the protein in your body, research shows. Thing is, she says, your body produces less collagen starting in your thirties and forties. Collagen peptides added to your diet may serve to replace what your body begins to lack as you age, and support your overall health.
2. Collagen Is an Easy-to-Digest Source of Protein
Your body works hard to digest protein from sources like chicken or beef, and some people may find that they deal with digestive symptoms like burping or stomach pain after a meal, explains Lachman. But collagen supplements are hydrolyzed, meaning the collagen is broken down, a process that makes it easier for your body to digest. Collagen supplements may potentially be a more comfortable way to get protein into your diet, she says. The process of hydrolyzing also allows collagen peptides to dissolve in water, which makes it relatively simple to use them in everyday foods (like water or smoothies).
3. Collagen Helps Smooth Wrinkles and Boost Elasticity in Skin
Skin health is the most well-researched benefit of taking collagen, says Lachman. In a January 2019 review in the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, researchers analyzed 11 randomized, placebo-controlled studies of more than 800 patients who took up to 10 grams (g) per day of collagen with the goal of improving skin health. The results? The supplements were shown to improve skin elasticity, help it better hold onto moisture, and rev the density of collagen fibers within skin. “Ten grams per day is a small scoop,” says Lachman — and it could be a small step in preserving a youthful appearance.
4. Collagen May Help Lessen Joint Aches and Pains
Joint pain can make it difficult to exercise, which can knock you off the path toward your goals. Taking a collagen supplement may help you get back on track. “There is some evidence that collagen can be great for supporting connective tissues and improving joint pain after exercise,” says Angelone. For instance, one study published in January 2017 in the journal Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism found that athletes with knee pain who took 5 g of collagen peptides daily for 12 weeks had less joint pain during exercise compared with a placebo group. Oral collagen may support cartilage repair and may also have an anti-inflammatory effect.
5. Oral Supplements May Promote Gut Health
In inflammatory digestive conditions, such as irritable bowel disease (IBD), there is a “gut healing” theory about collagen. “Some research finds that collagen levels are decreased in patients with these conditions. By taking collagen, you would help correct a deficiency,” says Lachman.
Research published in May 2017 in the journal Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics found that among IBD patients, there was an imbalance between the formation and breakdown of collagen fibers, and this was connected to inflammation. Past research also shows that IBD patients have decreased serum levels of type 4 collagen. Collagen is a part of connective tissue, which makes up your colon and GI tract, so by bringing your levels up, there may be a supportive environment for your body to heal. This is an emerging idea, she says, but it may be one benefit to trying a supplement or dietary approach to increase collagen intake.
6. Collagen May Buoy Your Heart Health
Stirring collagen into your coffee may be good for your ticker, too. A small uncontrolled open label study published in the Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis in May 2017 looked at 32 participants who took a collagen tripeptide twice a day. After six months, markers of atherosclerosis (buildup in artery walls), including measures of cholesterol and arterial stiffness, had improved. (When atherosclerosis affects the arteries that lead to your heart, it’s known as coronary artery disease, which is the deadliest form of heart disease, per the Mayo Clinic.) Researchers think that the collagen may help fortify blood vessel walls to reduce the risk of artery disease.
7. Peptides Can Keep Bones Healthy
Bone mineral density decreases as you age, especially after menopause, according to the National Osteoporosis Foundation. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial on 102 post-menopausal women, participants who took collagen peptides for one year increased their bone mineral density compared with the control group. Researchers postulated that this was because the collagen stimulated bone formation while slowing down bone loss, per an article in the journal Nutrients in January 2018.
8. Collagen May Be Useful in Joint Disease
There are different types of collagen, according to an article published in November 2019 in Molecules. Type 1 (found in beef) is beneficial when it comes to your skin, while type 2 (found in chicken) is potentially more helpful when it comes to arthritic joint pain, Lachman explains. Joints are composed of cartilage, which is largely made up of collagen. A study published in June 2016 in the Eurasian Journal of Medicine found that patients with knee osteoarthritis who took acetaminophen along with type 2 collagen reduced joint pain during walking and had quality of life superior to those on the medication alone. That said, research is mixed and hasn’t come to a firm conclusion. Lachman says your best bet is to purchase a supplement that contains various sources of animal collagen for the widest range of benefits.
9. Collagen Won’t Help You Lose Weight
Eating enough protein is important to a healthy diet. The nutrient is needed to support your body in building muscle — lean tissue that is more metabolically active than fat (meaning it leads to faster metabolism, according to the Mayo Clinic). But you’ll want to put collagen in perspective here: It can’t be the only change you make to your diet and lifestyle habits. “Adding a collagen powder to a diet high in sugar and refined carbohydrates and excess calories won’t help you lose weight,” says Lachman.